Surveys and Data Sets

China Household and Ethnicity Survey (CHES), 2011

The China Household Ethnicity Survey (CHES) looks at the economic behaviour of China’s ethnic majority and minority populations. It uses a stratified random sampling method to obtain data points that look at household wages, educational outcomes, labour force mobility, social security and subjective well-being indicators. The CHES 2011 data set includes 10,516 urban and rural households, encompassing 41,733 individuals; further, it covers six of the eight regions (e.g. Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Guangxi, Guizhou and Hunan) where the majority of China’s ethnic minority populations are located (see coverage map). 


Publications

1.  Gustafsson, B., Hasmath, R. and Ding, S., eds. (2021) Ethnicity and Inequality in China. New York and Oxford: Routledge. [ISBN: 9780367497033 (hardback); 9780367534868 (paperback)]

2.  MacDonald, A. and Hasmath, R. (2019) “Outsider Ethnic Minorities and Wage Determination in China”, International Labour Review 158(3): 489-508. 

3.  Hasmath, R. and MacDonald, A. (2018) “Beyond Special Privileges: The Discretionary Treatment of Ethnic Minorities in China’s Welfare System”, Journal of Social Policy 47(2): 295-316.


Chinese Citizens Expectations of the State Survey (CCESS), 2016 and 2019

The Chinese Citizens Expectations of the State Survey (CCESS) looks at individuals' ideological beliefs and attitudes pertaining to the state's role in the economy, and economic governance more broadly. The survey utilizes a seven-point Likert scale to measure the strength of respondents’ agreement and disagreement with queries relating to state ownership, market regulation, competition policy, industrial policy, public goods management and environmental protection.

CCESS 2016 was conducted using a random digit dialing telephone survey that ran from late 2015 to early 2016. Urban residents (ages 21 and above) were targeted in six cities corresponding to varying levels of socio-economic development: Beijing and Shanghai (tier-one); Chengdu, Hefei, Hohhot and Wuhan (tier-two). The N-size of the survey was 1,000 respondents, with a sampling scale of 131,291 individuals, involving 68,162 telephone numbers (see basic demographic information). 

CCESS 2019 is an online nation-wide, urban survey (N = 1,500) fielded in July 2019 (see coverage distribution). Quotas for both age and education were employed to ensure the urban sample was not skewed for younger ages and/or the highly educated. 

 

Publications

1.  Hasmath, R. (2023) “Citizens’ Support for Economic Governance Approaches in Contemporary China”, Global Public Policy and Governance 3: 249-267.

2.  Eaton, S. and Hasmath, R. (2021) “Economic Legitimation in a New Era: Public Attitudes About State Ownership and Market Regulation”, The China Quarterly 246: 447-472.  [audio paper:  video and podcast]

3.  MacDonald, A. and Hasmath, R. (2020) “How Citizens Order Their Political Mind: Contemporary Ideology in China”, Paper Presented at Southern Political Science Association Annual Conference (San Juan, Puerto Rico), January 9-11.

4.  MacDonald, A. and Hasmath, R. (2018) “Does Ideology Matter for the Citizenry in China? Public Attitudes and Preferences for Economic Policies”, Paper Presented at Midwest Political Science Association Annual Conference (Chicago, USA), April 5-8.


Policy Innovation in China Survey (PICS), 2018

The Policy Innovation in China Survey (PICS) examines local government officials' feelings of personal efficacy and risk tolerance when it comes to policymaking.  It also includes questions about orientation towards authority, the importance of cognition or learning from societal or other forms of feedback, and which factors help or hinder policy innovation. Between 2016 and 2018, over 900 local government officials were surveyed. Participants were drawn from eight different provinces, including Shangdong (35%), Guangdong (20%), Hebei (15%), and the remaining five provinces (Anhui, Gansu, Hubei, Yunnan, and Zhejiang) account for between 5-10% of the total sample respectively. 


Publications

1.  Hasmath, R. and Teets, J. (2024) “The Authoritarian Consultative Policymaker”, Working Paper.

2.  Lewis, O., Teets, J. and Hasmath, R. (2022) “Exploring Political Personalities: The Micro-Foundations of Local Policy Innovation in China”, Governance 35(1): 103-122.  [audio paper:  video and podcast]

3.  Teets, J. and Hasmath, R. (2020) “The Evolution of Policy Experimentation in China”, Journal of Asian Public Policy 13(1): 49-59.  [audio paper:  video and podcast]

4.  Hasmath, R., Teets, J. and Lewis, O. (2019) “The Innovative Personality? Policymaking and Experimentation in an Authoritarian Bureaucracy”, Public Administration and Development 39(3): 154-162[audio paper:  video and podcast]

5.  Teets, J., Hasmath, R. and Lewis, O. (2017) “The Incentive to Innovate? The Behavior of Policymakers in China”, Journal of Chinese Political Science 22(4): 505-517[audio paper:  video and podcast]


Civic Participation in China Survey (CPCS), 2018, 2020, 2022 and 2024

The Civic Participation in China Survey (CPCS) is an online survey of urban residents looking at individual philanthropic and volunteering behaviour, and perceptions of civic engagement. CPCS 2018 data was collected in October 2018 (N = 1,402), CPCS 2020 data was collected between December 2019 and February 2020 (N = 4,999), CPCS 2022 data was collected between December 2021 and February 2022 (N = 5,003), and CPCS 2024 data was collected between December 2023 and March 2024 (N = 5,012).

The survey included a total of 40 questions and involved both multiple choice and ranking questions. Individual demographic information gathered by the survey included: age, gender, number of children, city, and Communist Party membership. Socio-economic information collected included: level of education, occupation and individual/household income. 

For more details, see the CPCS website here


Publications

1.  Hasmath, R., Hildebrandt, T., Hsu, C., Hsu, J. and Teets, J. (2024) “The Civic Participation in China Survey: Key Trends in Philanthropic and Voluntary Activities”, Working Paper.

2.  Hildebrandt, T., Hasmath, R., Hsu, J., Teets, J. and Hsu, C. (2024) “What Makes a ‘Bad Citizen’? Understanding Non-Participation in Philanthropic and Voluntaristic Activities in China”, Working Paper.

3.  Hsu, J., Hsu, C., Hasmath, R., Hildebrandt, T. and Teets, J. (2023) “Creating a Culture of Philanthropy and Volunteerism in Contemporary China”, Paper Presented at Association for Asian Studies Annual Meeting (Boston, USA), March 16-19.

4.  Hsu, C., Teets, J., Hasmath, R., Hsu, J. and Hildebrandt, T. (2022) “The Construction and Performance of Citizenship in Contemporary China”, Journal of Contemporary China 31(138): 827-843.  [audio paper:  video and podcast]

5.  Hasmath, R., Hildebrandt, T., Teets, J., Hsu, J. and Hsu, C. (2022) “Citizens’ Expectations for Crisis Management and the Involvement of Civil Society Organizations in China”, Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 51(2): 292-312.  [audio paper:  video and podcast]

6.  Teets, J., Hasmath, R., Hildebrandt, T., Hsu, C. and Hsu, J. (2022) “Volunteerism and Democratic Learning in an Authoritarian State: The Case of China”, Democratization 29(5): 879-898.  [audio paper:  video and podcast]


Online Privacy and Surveillance in China Survey (OPSCS), 2021

The Online Privacy and Surveillance in China Survey (OPSCS) is a nation-wide, randomized online survey that gauges citizens' knowledge and perception of online technology-related privacy and security issues. It poses questions looking at citizens' attitudes when it comes to: (1) monitoring online users, (2) collecting and using biometric information, and (3) utilizing technology for 'social stability' (e.g. crime prevention). The survey also comparatively examines citizens' comfort levels with the central state, local state and private companies behaviour in this regard. In addition, it assesses the role of traditional and social media in influencing citizens' beliefs pertaining to online privacy and surveillance. 

The OPSCS data was collected in May 2021 (N = 1,500). The survey included a total of 60 questions and involves 7-point Likert scale questions and experimental prompts. Individual demographic information gathered by the survey included: age, gender, urban/rural status, martial status and Communist Party membership. Socio-economic information collected included: level of education, occupation and household income.

Chinese Citizens' Global Perception Survey (CCGPS), 2023 and 2024

The Chinese Citizens' Global Perception Survey (CCGPS) is a national survey looking at how the Chinese general public think about China's current relations with global actors and their relationship with China. The survey specifically poses queries looking at citizens' attitudes on (1) foreign relations and global security; (2) China's global roles; (3) international trade and global governance; and, (4) outbound tourism, study abroad, international work and emigration preferences. Global actors covered in the survey include: Australia, Canada, EU, France, Germany, India, Japan, Russia, UK and USA. 

CCGPS 2023 and CCGPS 2024 data was collected in the first quarters of 2023 (N = 2,009) and 2024 (N = 2,007) respectively. The survey included a total of 33 questions and involves 7-point Likert scale questions. Individual demographic information gathered by the survey included: age, gender, urban/rural status, martial status and Communist Party membership. Socio-economic information collected included: level of education, functional language abilities, occupation and individual/household income.

For more details, see the CCGPS website here


Publications

1.  Hasmath, R. (2024) How China Sees the World in 2024. Edmonton: The China Institute at the University of Alberta.  [summary: English, Chinese and French

2Hasmath, R. (2023) How China Sees the World in 2023. Edmonton: The China Institute at the University of Alberta.  [summary: English, Chinese and French] 

Chinese Altruistic Behaviour Survey (CABS), 2023

The Chinese Altruistic Behaviour Survey (CABS) is a national survey looking at citizens' awareness of their personal self and their relationship with others. This includes measurements looking at empathy, interpersonal trust, social responsibility and subjective well-being. These instruments are used to analyze citizens' self-reported stance on a variety of social, economic and political issues that have national and/or global salience. The ultimate aim of the survey is to develop a socio-psychological profile of the altruistic authoritarian citizen.

The CABS data was collected in the summer of 2023 (N = 2,005). The survey included a total of 28 questions, and involved both multiple choice and ranking questions. Individual demographic information gathered by the survey included: age, gender, urban/rural location, martial status and Communist Party membership. Socio-economic information collected included: level of education, occupation and individual/household income.